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What is the Sciatic Nerve, anatomy and causes of inflammation

The sciatic nerve , or ischial nerve (nervus ischiadicus), is an important peripheral nerve that is even, that is, organized in pairs (in this case we have the left and right sciatic nerve) that originates in the spinal cord in the lower back, extends from the gluteus passing from the back of the leg to the foot posterior disc bulge.

Anatomy and course of the sciatic nerve

In addition to being the largest and longest, it is probably the best known nerve as it is often involved in back pain ; it originates in the lower part of the spine that is from the lumbar area from the lumbar and sacral spinal nerves that come out of the L4-L5-S1-S2-S3 foramina.

After the meeting of the various emergencies this large nerve descends along the lower limbs passing under the buttock area (more precisely under the piriformis muscle) then passing between the greater trochanter of the femur and the ischial spine; still going down and towards the middle of the thigh.

At this point as it passes between the hamstring muscles it moves towards the knee jointin its back; here it is important to focus as this nerve in the popliteal area is divided into two branches which are:

Internal popliteal Sciatic Nerve : then also subdivided into Tibial Nerve which deals with going to command the area of ​​the calf muscles and the sole of the foot .

External popliteal sciatic nerve : (also called common peroneal nerve) which is responsible for innervating the anterior component of the leg with the function of raising the toe of the foot and then performing a dorsal flexion.

It should be noted that this large nerve deals not only with the motor aspect but also with receiving the painful, thermal and tactile sensation of the territory described above as it has leg nerves that receive a lot of information.

What is inflammation of the sciatic nerve?

After talking about anatomy , a fundamental thing to describe is how this nerve can undergo irritation and become inflamed. In fact, the pain attack  that is commonly described is not always a condition that specifically concerns the nerve, but only the territory of innervation.

Commonly known as sciatica or sciatica, inflammation of the sciatic nerve is a condition in which pain is felt near or along the course of the sciatic nerve and usually affects 40 years onwards with cases prevalent in men over women.

When we speak generically of sciatica or sciatic pain we are therefore talking about a painful condition that affects the root of the nerve structure and that projects pain and a strong deficit of movement to the muscles that are innervated by this nerve.